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新概念第二册自学导读 Lessons20

发表时间:2011/7/6字号:T|T

课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.I often fish for hours without catching anything. 我经常一钓数小时却一无所获。

without 通常表示“缺乏”、“没有”:

I can't repair the car without your help.

没有你的帮助我无法修理这车。

当它位于动名词前时,它表示“不曾”、“不”:

They tried to leave the restaurant without paying.

他们企图不付账就离开餐馆。

John left the room without telling anyone.

约翰离开房间时不曾告诉任何人。

2.Instead of catching fish, they catch old boots and rubbish. 他们往往鱼钓不到,却钓上来些旧靴子和垃圾。

instead有“作为替代”、“反而”等含义,一般以短语形式instead of出现:

Jack took part in the race instead of Tony.

杰克代替托尼参加了比赛。

Instead of sugar, he bought some salt.

他没有买糖,而是买了些盐。

副词instead单独使用时一般出现在句尾:

If you don't want a holiday in England, why don't you go to Australia instead?

如果你不想在英国度假,那你为什么不去澳大利亚呢?

3.I am even less lucky. 我的运气甚至还不及他们。

less是little的比较级,意为“不及”、“不如”、“更少”:

Tom has got little chocolate, and Jack has got even less.

汤姆只有一点儿巧克力,杰克则更少。

I spend less time on English than on French.

我花在英语上的时间比花在法语上的少。

(cf. 第8课语法)

4.…I always go home with an empty bag. ……然后空着袋子回家。

with可以表示“有……的”、“持有……的”、“随身带着……”等:

Who's the man with the umbrella?

那个带伞的男人是谁?

Who's the man with the beard?

那个留胡子的男人是谁?

Who's the woman with the little boy?

带着那个小男孩的女人是谁?

5.I'm not really interested in fishing. 我并不是真的对钓鱼有兴趣。

表示“对……感兴趣”一般用be interested in sth. /doing sth.:

Tim is only interested in food.

蒂姆只对食物感兴趣。

I'm interested in collecting stamps.

我对集邮有兴趣。

语法 Grammar in use

动名词(The Gerund)(1)

动名词和现在分词的形式完全一样,都是由动词+-ing构成。-ing 形式作名词时称为动名词。从广义上讲,动名词可以代替名词,尽管它像动词一样可带宾语。像名词一样,它可以作主语:

Dancing is fun. I love it.

跳舞有意思,我喜欢跳舞。

Walking quickly is difficult.

走快是很难的。(动名词+副词作主语)

Washing the car makes him dirty.

擦洗汽车把他身上弄脏了。(动名词+宾语作主语)

动名词也可以作宾语或介词宾语:

Mary is keen on cooking.

玛丽热衷于烹调。(介词宾语)

Congratulations on passing your exams!

祝贺你通过考试!

可以带动名词的介词通常有 before,after,instead of,without 等。用介词+动名词结构可以将两个短句合为一句话,或者将一个从句变为动名词结构。动名词的否定式是在它前面直接加not:

Tom always knocks before entering a room.

汤姆在走进一个房间前总要敲门。

He apologized for not writing to you.

他为没给你写信而表示道歉。

动名词也可以用表示完成时的 having +过去分词结构:

You can't leave the restaurant without having paid the bill.

在没有付账之前你不能离开饭店。

词汇学习 Word study

1.catch vt.

(1)捉住,逮住,捕获:

The police have caught the thief.

警察已逮住那个小偷。

Have you caught any fish today?

你今天钓到鱼了吗?

(2)抓住,握住:

Tom caught the thief by the arm.

汤姆抓住小偷的胳膊。

Can you catch the ball?

你能接住球吗?

(3)及时赶到,赶上:

I want to catch the eight nineteen(train) to London.

我想赶8点19分的火车去伦敦。

2.realize vt.

(1)实现(希望、目标、愿望等):

She has realized her hope to be an actress.

她实现了自己当一名演员的愿望。

(2)使变为事实,使发生(常用于被动语态):

This plan can never be realized.

这个计划永远不可能变成事实。

(3)认识,知道,明白,意识到:

I went into the wrong room without realizing it.

我无意中走错了房间。

I hope you realize that you've made a big mistake.

我希望你明白你已经犯了个大错误。

realize 和understand表示这个意思时有时可以互换,有时则不可以。在上面的例句中,第1句不可用 understand,第2句则可以。又如:

I an did not understand English.

伊恩不懂英语。(不可用 realize)

3.interested与interesting

大多数现在分词和许多过去分词都可以作形容词用。常见的以-ed和-ing结尾的成对的形容词有 excited/ exciting, tired/ tiring, interested/ interesting等。以-ed结尾的形容词常与人称主语连用,表示人的情绪、状态、喜好等;以-ing结尾的形容词则常与非人称主语连用,表明事物的某种特征、性质等:

This story is exciting.

这故事激动人心。

I am excited by the story.

我因这故事而兴奋。

It was an exciting finish.

(比赛的)结尾激动人心。

Sally was very excited because she had never travelled on a train before.

萨莉非常激动,因为她从未乘过火车。

The play was very interesting.

戏很有意思。

Are you interested in plays?

你对戏剧有兴趣吗?

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