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新概念第二册自学导读 Lessons18

发表时间:2011/7/6字号:T|T
课文详注Furthernotesonthetext 1.AfterIhadhadlunchatavillagepub,Ilookedformybag.我在一家乡村小酒店吃过午饭后,就找我的提包。 (1)have在havelunch这个词组中是完全动词而不是助动词,因此,像其他完全动词...

课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.After I had had lunch at a village pub, I looked for my bag. 我在一家乡村小酒店吃过午饭后,就找我的提包。

(1)have在have lunch这个词组中是完全动词而不是助动词,因此,像其他完全动词一样,它的过去完成时要加助动词had。

(cf. 本课语法)

(2)pub为public house(酒店,酒吧)的缩略形式,在英国英语的口语中较常见:

Let's go to the pub for a drink.

咱们去酒店喝杯酒吧。

(3)look for强调“寻找”这个动作,而不涉及结果:

I looked for my key everywhere, but I couldn't find it.

我到处寻找我的钥匙,但还是没找到。

2.I had left it on a chair beside the door…我曾把它放在门边的椅子上……

leave除了“离去”、“离开”、“出发”的意思,还可以表示“把(人、物)留下”、“遗留”、“丢下”等:

The dog has left your bag by a tree.

那狗把你的提包丢在了一棵树旁。

Have you left anything in the car?

你有没有把什么东西丢在车里?

Leave the books on the desk.

把书放在课桌上。

3.My dog had taken it into the garden. He often does this!我的狗把它弄到花园里去了,他常干这种事!

he在这里指代的是狗。动物通常用it来代表,即被看成像东西一样。但是,指宠物、家畜或民间故事中的动物时,我们经常也用he,she,who等,即使得它们“人格化”并具有性别。用阴性代词指某个动物或东西时尤其有一种亲切的含义:

I have a little cat. She drinks milk every morning.

我有一只小猫。她每天早上喝牛奶。

George's parrot, Henry, can speak a few words. He always calls when there are lights.

乔治的鹦鹉亨利能说几个单词。只要有灯光他就叫。

语法 Grammar in use

完全动词have

(1)动词have有两种用法。一是作为助动词构成各种完成时(包括过去、现在、将来)和完成进行时:

I haven't seen him this morning.

我今天上午没见过他。

When I rang, Tim had already left.

我打电话的时候,蒂姆已经走了。

(2)have还可以作完全动词。当它作“具有”、“拥有”讲时,它和have got通常可以互换。在英国英语中,疑问句和否定句中

have(具有)的用法与be相同,即可以不用助动词do(或did)。

I haven't got any pencils.

我没有铅笔。

在美国英语中,常用do,did等与have一起构成疑问句和否定句:

这种形式在英国英语中现在也常见了。

have作“具有”、“拥有”讲时是状态动词,不能用于进行时态或被动语态。它通常用于一般现在时:

You can have these apples if you want them. I've got a lot more.

如果你想要这些苹果你可以把它们拿走。我还有许多。

He has(got) a Ford.

他有一辆福特牌汽车。

在其他时态中,一般用have而不用 have got:

He had a Ford last year.

去年他有过一辆福特牌汽车。

I have had this car for three years.

这辆汽车我已用了3年了。

Last week, Jimmy had a bad cold.

上星期吉米得了重感冒。

(3)have 作完全动词时,还可以表示eat,drink,enjoy,take等意思,这时它是行为动词,可以用于包括进行时的各种时态:

Have a cigarette, Sam.

萨姆,请抽烟。

We will have dinner at seven o'clock.

我们将于7点开饭。

Sam and I had lunch together today.

我和萨姆今天一起吃的午饭。

I'm having a drink.

我正在喝点东西。

当have用于表示这些含义时,它必须与do和did等连用以构成疑问句和否定句:

词汇学习 Word study

1.beside与besides

介词beside常用的含义为“在……旁边”、“在……附近”:

Come and sit beside us.

过来坐在我们旁边吧。

There is a chair beside the door.

门旁边有一把椅子。

besides的词形与beside很相似,但意义却相差甚远。besides作副词时表示“而且”、“并且”、“此外”等意思:

She has so much else to do besides.

此外,她还有许多其他事要做。

I'm quite busy today. Besides, I've got a bad cold.

我今天很忙,而且我还感冒得厉害。

besides还可以作介词,表示“除……之外(还)”:

There were a lot of people at the party besides us.

除了我们以外,晚会上还有许多(其他)人。

2.give的几个固定搭配

及物动词give常用的含义是“给予”、“交给”:

Give me some water, please.

请给我一些水。

I lent him some books last month and he has given them back to me this morning.

我上个月曾借给他一些书。他今天上午都还给我了。可以看出,give与back连用时,它的意义并没有发生太大的变化。但是,当它与其他副词连用时,意义往往会有变化,有时变化非常大:

He gave away all his books to the library.

他把所有的书都赠给了这家图书馆。(give away:赠送)

Give in your examination papers after you've finished.

考卷做好后就交上来。(give in:上交,呈交)

You can do what you like. I will never give in.

你想干什么就干什么。我决不屈服。(give in:屈服,让步)

He gave up drinking a few years ago.

他几年前戒酒了。(give up:放弃,抛弃)

Jack has given up the watch he stole last week.

杰克把他上星期偷的表交了出来。(give up:交出,让出)

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A 1 I looked for my bag after I had had lunch at a village pub.

2 I had left my bag on a chair beside the door.

3 The landlord asked me:‘Did you have a good meal?’

4 I answered:‘I can't pay the bill because I haven't got my bag.’

5 The dog had taken the bag into the garden.

C Sentences 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11

2.难点练习答案

A 1 back  2 away  3 in  4 in

B 1 Besides  2  beside

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