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新概念第二册自学导读 Lessons15

发表时间:2011/7/6字号:T|T
课文详注Furthernotesonthetext 1.ThesecretarytoldmethatMr.Harmsworthwouldseeme.秘书告诉我说哈姆斯沃斯先生要见我。 would在这里不是表示单纯的过去将来时,而是表示“想……”、“要……”的意思: Whatwou...

课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.The secretary told me that Mr. Harmsworth would see me. 秘书告诉我说哈姆斯沃斯先生要见我。

would 在这里不是表示单纯的过去将来时,而是表示“想……”、“要……”的意思:

What would you like to have?

你想要吃(喝)什么?

John wouldn't lend me his bicycle.

约翰不愿意把他的自行车借给我。

2.He did not look up from his desk when I entered. 我进去的时候,他连头也没抬。

在这句话的look up中,look是它的本义“看”、“瞧”。look up一般表示原先在埋头干什么之后抬头看:

He looked up(from his book)when he heard a noise.

他听到声音后就抬起了头。(原先在读书)

3.I knew that my turn had come. 我知道这次该轮到我了。

turn在这里是名词,意为“轮流”、“轮班”、“(依次轮流时各自的)一次机会”:

I have already asked two questions. Now it's your turn.

我已经问了两个问题。该轮到你了。

When his turn came, he couldn't speak any word.

轮到他时,他却一个字也说不出来。

4.‘Mr. Harmsworth,’I said in a weak voice.“哈姆斯沃斯先生,”我无力地说。

weak在这里不是指身体虚弱,而是指声音“微弱”、“无力”,因为怕被开除而感到紧张。

5.Then he smiled and told me I would receive an extra thousand pounds a year!

然后他微笑了一下告诉我说,我每年将得到

1,000英镑的额外收入。

(1)extra 表示“额外的”、“外加的”、“份外的”:

On Sundays, I usually get some extra sleep.

星期天我通常要多睡一会儿。

Last month, he was paid an extra hundred pounds.

他上个月多得了100英镑。

(2)a在这里可译为“每一”:

I went to London once a month.

我每月去一次伦敦。

Jack telephoned Pauline four times a day.

杰克每天给波琳打4次电话。

语法 Grammar in use

间接引语(Indirect speech)

把某人所说的话告诉另外一个人时,应该使用间接引语(有的语法书称之为“转述引语”)。引述动词(如say,tell)可能是现在时,也可能是过去时(最常用)。间接陈述句的时态往往受引述动词的影响。引述陈述句时最常用的动词是say和tell。它们之间的区别是tell后面必须跟表示人称的间接宾语(tell sb….),而say后面则可跟或不跟to +讲话对象。如果需要提到听话者,tell +间接宾语通常比say + to +sb. 更常用。在say和tell后面一般不可加逗号。如果间接引语中的引述动词是现在时,那么其后的时态通常与原来口头陈述句的时态相同。转述刚刚说完的话时通常如此;引述动词如果是过去时,那么间接引语中的时态通常要“往回移”(即“倒移”)。一条普遍的规则是“现在时变为过去时,过去时变为过去完成时”。直接引语:

‘I can see him now!’

“我现在可以见他!”

词汇学习 Word study

1.nervous adj.

(1)神经质的,神经紧张的:

She is a nervous woman. Do you see that nervous smile on her face?

她是个神经质的女人。你看见她脸上那种神经质的微笑了吗?

(2)紧张的,担心的,情绪不安的:

I feel very nervous before exams.

我在考试前感到非常紧张。

He had never spoken in public, so he was very nervous.

他从未当众讲过话,因此他非常紧张。

(3)与nervous容易混淆的另一个词是 irritable(易怒的,急躁的):

Our teacher is an irritable old lady. She gets angry easily.

我们的老师是位脾气急躁的老太太。她很容易生气。

2.afford vt.

(1)买得起(常与can连用):

We can/can't afford a car this year.

我们今年买得起/买不起小汽车。

(2)担负得起(损失、后果等),花得起(时间)(常与can连用):

I can't afford to be ill again.

我不能再病了。

I can only afford one week for the trip.

我只能为这次旅行抽出一周的时间。

(3)提供,给予:

Joe afforded us a room for the night.

那天晚上乔为我们提供了一个房间过夜。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A 1a The secretary told me that Mr. Harmsworth would see me.

b‘Mr. Harmsworth will see you. ’

2 a Mr. Harmsworth said that business was very bad.

b ‘Business is very bad.’

3 a Mr. Harmsworth told me that the firm could not afford to pay such large salaries.

b ‘The firm cannot afford to pay such large salaries. ’

B 1 told… would come/would be coming

2 said…(had) cut

3 told… had never played

4 did he say…had done/would do

5 did he tell…(had) bought/would buy

6 said…could not

7 said…(had) worked

8 told…wrote/writes/had never written

9 did you say…were/had been

10 said…would wait

2.难点练习答案

1 study  2 office  3 nervous  4 afford  5 irritable

3.多项选择题答案

1d  2b  3c  4b  5c  6d

7a  8d  9c  10c  11c  12b

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