4-6. Vera's curious talent was brought to the notice of a scientific research institute in the town of Ulyanovsk, near where she lives, and in April she was given a series of tests by a special commission of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federal Republic.
bring something to the notice of someone 使某人注意某事
institute：机构，组织（an organization that has a particular purpose such as scientific or educational work）。
4-7. During these tests she was able to read a newspaper through an opaque screen and, stranger still, by moving her elbow over a child's game of Lotto she was able to describe the figures and colours printed on it; and, in another instance, wearing stockings and slippers, to make out with her foot the outlines and colours of a picture hidden under a carpet.
by moving…Lotto作方式状语，修饰was able to describe。printed on it是过去分词短语，修饰figures and colours，it指Lotto。wearing stockings and slippers作时间状语，修饰to make out。wearing前省略了When she was。to make out…to前省略了she was able。the outlines and colours…carpet作make out的宾语。hidden under a carpet作pictures的定语。
opaque：不透明的（be difficult to see through and often thick），反义词为transparent。
make out：看出；辨认出；听出（to be just able to see or hear something），
make out a figure in the darkness
4-8. Other experiments showed that her knees and shoulders had a similar sensitivity.
4-9. During all these tests Vera was blindfold; and, indeed, except when blindfold she lacked the ability to perceive things with her skin.
except when blindfold中when blindfold前省略了she was。某些时间状语从句中，如果谓语动词是be，主语又与主句的主语一致或是it，就常常可以把从句中的主语及be省略。
Michael Jackson was fond of singing when（he was）yet a child.
I got acquainted with him while I was on a visit to New York.
4-10. It was also found that although she could perceive things with her fingers this ability ceased the moment her hands were wet.
the moment her hands were wet是时间状语从句，意为“她的双手一湿”。
ceased：停止（to stop doing something or stop happening），
The music ceased suddenly. 音乐戛然而止。
ceasing talking 停止谈话
the moment（that）：一……就……（as soon as），
She called her mother the moment（that）she reached the hotel.