3-8. Such inns as there were were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down with coarse wine.
as there were作定语从句修饰inns，as乃关系代词。the food simply…中food和simply中间，all与washed中间都省略了was。请注意，在几个并列分句中，第一个分句中用了be，后面分句中的be可以省略，
There are two requisites in interpretation：one is accuracy and the other（is）expressiveness.
accompanied by bread often twelve months old是过去分词短语，作cheese的定语。often twelve months old作定语，修饰bread。
accompany：伴随，和……一起发生（to happen or exist at the same time as something else），
fever accompanied with delirium伴有昏迷的发烧
3-9. Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter wherever they could—sometimes with the local priest (who was usually as poor as his parishioners), sometimes with shepherds or cheese-makers.
wherever they could作地点状语，修饰found。could后省略了find shelter。sometimes with两词之间省略了they found shelter。found shelter with…与……住在一起，这里的破折号引出被强调的部分。
boast：以拥有……而自豪（if a place, object, or organization boasts something, it has something that is very good），
A fishing village 30 years ago, it now boasts 150 major hotels.
3-10. Invariably the background was the same: dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable.
same后的冒号引出同位语。dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable作the same的同位语。
invariable: 始终如一的，恒定不变的（always happening in the same way, at the same time etc.），
It’s my invariable habit to take a nap.
3-11. For men accustomed to eating seven-course dinners and sleeping between fine linen sheets at home, the change to the Alps must have very hard indeed.
accustomed to…at home作定语修饰men。
be accustomed to（doing/do）something：习惯于做某事（to be familiar with something and accept it as normal），
We are accustomed to working/work hard.
My eyes soon grew accustomed to the darkness.
course：（一）道（菜）（one of the separate parts of a meal），例如：
The first course was soup.