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研究:狗也有嫉妒心

发表时间:2008/12/15字号:T|T
研究:狗也有嫉妒心Dogscanbejealous,sayscientists Dogsarepronetocomplexemotionssuchasjealousyandpride,accordingtoscientificresearchthatshedsnewlightontheirrelationshipwithhumans. Caninesdonotlikeseei...

研究:狗也有嫉妒心
Dogs can be jealous, say scientists


Dogs are prone to complex emotions such as jealousy and pride, according to scientific research that sheds new light on their relationship with humans.

Canines do not like seeing their owners offering affection to other creatures, especially other dogs, and react negatively when their owners bring home new partners, the research found.

Psychologists previously believed most animals lack the "sense of self" needed to experience so-called secondary emotions such as jealousy, embarrassment, empathy or guilt. These emotions are more complex than feelings associated with instant reaction – such as anger, lust or joy.

Dr Friederike Range, of the University of Vienna's neurobiology department, has shown that dogs feel intense jealously when they spot that they are unfairly treated compared with other dogs. "Dogs show a strong aversion to inequity," she said.

The dog study is the latest into several species, including cows, horses, cats and sheep, which have shown that animals are far more self-aware than was thought.

Dr Paul Morris, a psychologist at the University of Portsmouth who studies animal emotions, told The Sunday Times: "We are learning that dogs, horses, and perhaps many other species are far more emotionally complex than we ever realised. They can suffer simple forms of many emotions we once thought only primates could experience."

In research among dog owners, Dr Morris found almost all of them reported jealous behaviour by their pets. The dog often tried to prise their owner away from a new lover in the early days of a relationship.

Behavioural experts recommend owners keeping their dog's routine as much as possible when a new partner or child comes along in order to prevent jealous activity from the dog such as interruptions with barking or whining.

 

一项科学研究表明,狗也会产生嫉妒和骄傲等复杂的情感。该研究进一步揭示了狗与人之间的关系。

研究发现,狗不愿意看到自己的主人对其它动物,尤其是其它的狗表现出关注。当主人把新男友或女友带回家时,它们也会表现出抵触情绪。

此前,心理学家认为大多数动物缺乏体会嫉妒、困窘、移情和内疚等高级情感的“自我意识”。这些情感远比愤怒、欲望或高兴等与即时反应相关的情感复杂。

奥地利维也纳大学的神经生物学博士弗里德里克•朗格称,当狗意识到自己得到的关注不如其它狗,即受到了不公正待遇时,就会表现出强烈的嫉妒情绪。她说:“狗对不公正十分抵触。”

此前研究人员已对牛、马、猫、羊等动物进行了类似研究,结果表明,动物的自我意识远远超出人的意料。

朴茨茅斯大学从事动物情感研究的心理学家保罗•莫里斯在接受《星期日泰晤士报》采访时说:“我们发现狗、马,可能还有其他很多动物的情感比我们预想的丰富得多,它们同样会表现出多种简单的感情形式,而之前我们以为只有灵长类动物才具有这样的高级情感。”

此外,莫里斯对养狗人开展的一项调查发现,几乎所有人都称他们的宠物狗有过嫉妒行为。比如,在他们把新男友或女友带回家的最初几天,他们的狗总是想方设法让他们远离对方。

行为学家建议,当家里出现新成员时,尽量不要打乱宠物狗的生活规律,以避免它们因为嫉妒而狂吠或哀嚎。

 

aversion:A fixed, intense dislike; repugnance(反感;厌恶)

prise:to use force to dislodge (something) from its position usually through leverage(把……移走)

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